A petroleum reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons that have porous or fractured rock formations. The two major categories of petroleum reservoirs: conventional and unconventional reservoirs. For conventional reservoirs, the hydrocarbons that occur naturally, such as natural gas and crude oil, are trapped by the overlying rock formations that have low permeability. On the other hand, unconventional reservoirs are characterized by a high porosity of the rocks with low permeability. This keeps the hydrocarbons trapped in a place with no need for a cap rock.
Managing petroleum reservoirs is a dynamic process. There are uncertainties surrounding the reservoir performance. Managing the reservoirs ensures optimal performance with mitigated effects of the uncertainties. According to the presenters at the society of petroleum engineers gas show and conference 2013, effective reservoir management can be achieved through the systematic application of multidisciplinary and integrated technologies. Unlike the unorthodox practices of reservoir control, as disjointed functions, this approach ensures that the control and operation of petroleum reservoir is a system. Therefore, this is a strategic application of various technologies to achieve synergy through optimal performance.
The technology behind building a petroleum reservoir is mainly determined by the processes involved. The two main factors to consider when building a petroleum reservoir are:
Fluids flow due to pressure. This is driving factor of the flux. Oil can easily flow to the ground since there is sufficient pressure underground. To avoid the fluids in the reservoir from the poor flow, there is need to maintain a minimum pressure level. In the common practice, this was combined with the use of pumps to pump out the oil in case the pressure dropped. This technology is often known as the ‘primary depletion.’
This is a second most influential factor that plays a part in building a petroleum reservoir. This is a measure of the quantity within the inner, porous space. The modern technology behind building a petroleum reservoir indicates that about 80% oil saturation be maintained. This comes with a 20% water saturation. This is referred to as the ‘connate water.’
As the main variables of consideration, pressure and saturation are complemented by other quantities. These properties include:
- Rock properties
- Rock-fluid properties
- Fluid properties
- Initial and boundary conditions
Modern technologies in building a petroleum reservoir are anchored on the ability to derive major phenomena from various principles. The Newtonian laws of mechanics are known to play a role in the process. The two main principles of this technology are the Darcy’s Law and the Material Balance. The other optional principle is the Fluid Phase behavior.
Exposure to natural gas can occur when there is a leakage in the pipes, appliances and heating symptoms. Natural is known for containing chemicals such as methane, propane, butane, ethane and carbon monoxide. This is a colourless and odourless gas. This makes it difficult to detect this gas. Most of the manufacturers often add a “rotten smell” to make its detection easier. Exposure to natural gas can lead to adverse health effects. Incompletely burnt gases can release a lot of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and this can be very dangerous.
Some of the common symptoms associated with carbon monoxide poisoning are Tiredness, headache, stomach or chest pain, vision problems, dizziness and nausea, loss of control which affects the muscles. Death can also occur in severe cases. Poisoning caused by carbon monoxide can be deadly. Continued exposure can lead to a pink skin and bright red lips. The following are some of the major symptoms associated with exposure to natural gas.
Small gas leaks can be extremely difficult to detect. Such exposure can lead to mild headaches. It is also characterized by a feeling of breathiness, especially during physical activities. However, you should note that breathiness and headaches can also be caused by other issues such as illness and allergies. It is advisable to have your pipes, and natural gas appliances checked for leakages when you find some of your family members suffering from a continuous mild headache.
This can lead to flu-like symptoms such as severe headaches, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, and tiredness. You will find victims suffering from prolonged gas exposure appearing confused. These people will have difficulties when remembering things. They might also have some problems when coordinating their physical activities or even become irritable sometimes. You are supposed to have all your gas appliances checked just in case you have some of your family members suffering from these symptoms. Additionally, you should also look for a temporary residence until all the repairs are made.
Prolonged or severe exposure
This can lead to high concentrations of the dangerous gases. This can lead to loss of consciousness on the affected victim. Loss of consciousness caused by the gas leak is one of the most dangerous health conditions. The carbon monoxide gas produced by the natural gas and other sources is known for reducing the amount of oxygen absorbed into your bloodstream. This can lead to severe damage to the internal tissues and organs. Death can also occur.
There are various types of drilling structures and rigs. They are used in the drilling of petroleum or natural gas both offshore (marine) and onshore (land). The specific requirements determine the type of the rig selected for a particular site. Most of the modern rigs are either of “Jack-knife” Derrick or cantilevered mask type. These rigs can be assembled easily on the ground. You can then use power from hoisting system of from the draw-works to raise them to the vertical position.
Most of the modern drilling structures are made using prefabricated sections which are then assembled on the site. The individual parts of these structures are transported to the site by the use of trucks, helicopters, and barge. There are two categories of the offshore drilling rigs. These are floating and the fixed structure types.
This is a rig which is capable of elevating itself. It is meant for smaller and offshore deposits. It has a floating platform which can be towed into its position by use of barges. This is followed by anchoring its legs to the sea floor for support. Finally, the rig is raised above the surface of the water.
Concrete platform or foundation
The offshore structures which are set using concrete are known for showing excellent performance. These structures are strong and very durable. This makes them more suitable for the arctic environment which is very harsh. This is an environment which carries heavy toptides. These structures are also equipped with storage capacities which are economical for the deep areas. Furthermore, the gravity type platforms do not require additional fixing because they have a large foundation.
These are special rigs which are not anchored to the floor of the sea instead they float on the water surface. These are vessels which are not propelled. It is the burge which contains the drilling equipment. This device is towered to its location. Its hull is then filled with water. It is mainly used for drilling oil shallow areas such as swamps having a depth of less than 12 ft. However, the posted burge can be used for drilling at higher depths up to 20 ft.
These ate types of tower rings which are almost similar to the fixed platforms. They are well anchored to hold the equipment above the water surface. It has a simple design which consists of a flexible and a narrow tower. It can, therefore, withstand any deflections caused by lateral forces.